Liver Disease

The liver has many important functions, including digesting your food and processing and distributing nutrients.

There are many kinds of liver diseases and conditions. Some, like hepatitis, are caused by viruses. Others can be the result of drugs or drinking too much alcohol. Long-lasting injury or scar tissue in the liver can cause cirrhosis. Jaundice, or yellowing of the skin, can be one sign of liver disease.

Liver Disease Symptoms & Signs

Signs and symptoms associated with liver disease vary and are dependent upon the exact type of liver disease that is present. Examples of signs and symptoms of liver disease include

  • jaundice,
  • abdominal pain and swelling,
  • itchy skin,
  • dark urine color,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • chronic fatigue,
  • pale stool color,
  • bloody stool,
  • tar-colored stool,
  • swelling in the ankles and legs,
  • loss of appetite, and
  • easy bruising.
Fatty Liver جگر بڑھ جانا
jaundice یرقان
Cirrhosis
Liver Cancer جگر کا کینسر
Hepatitis C ہیپا ٹائیٹس سی
Hepatitis A ہیپا ٹائیٹس اے
Hepatitis B ہیپا ٹائیٹس بی
Liver failure جگر کا فیل ہونا
Benign Liver Tumors جگر کا پھوڑا
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Overview

The liver is the second largest (after the skin) organ in the human body and the largest gland (weighing an average of 1500 g). It lies under the diaphragm in the right upper abdomen and midabdomen and extends to the left upper abdomen. The liver has the general shape of a prism or wedge, with its base to the right and its apex to the left (see the image below). It is pinkish brown in color, with a soft consistency, and is highly vascular and easily friable.

The liver is essentially an exocrine gland, secreting bile into the intestine. But, the liver is also — and significantly so — an endocrine gland and a blood filter. The liver has a diversity of functions not typically associated with glands. The liver is a metabolic factory, synthesizing and breaking down a variety of substances. It’s functions

include all of the following:

  • metabolism of cholesterol and fat.
  • synthesis of urea.
  • storage of glycogen, buffer for blood glucose.
  • volume reservoir for blood.
  • catabolism of hemoglobin from worn-out red blood cells.
  • synthesis and endocrine secretion of many plasma proteins, including clotting factors.
  • detoxification of many drugs and other poisons.
  • cleansing of bacteria from blood.
  • processing of several steroid hormones and vitamin D.

Much of the liver’s organization is conditioned by its central role in removing unwanted materials from blood and otherwise maintaining the blood’s normal composition.

What are the general symptoms?

Liver disease symptoms vary, depending on the underlying cause. However, there are some general symptoms that may indicate some kind of liver disease.

These include:

  1. vomiting
  2. dark urine
  3. yellow skin and eyes, known as jaundice
  4. easy bruising
  5. pale, bloody, or black stool
  6. swollen ankles, legs, or abdomen
  7. nausea
  8. decreased appetite
  9. ongoing fatigue
  10. itchy skin

Diseases

Cirrhosis:

This sees scar tissue replace liver cells in a process known as fibrosis. This condition can be caused by a number of factors, including toxins, alcohol, and hepatitis. Eventually, fibrosis can lead to liver failure as the functionality of the liver cells is destroyed.

Hepatitis:

Hepatitis is the name given to a general infection of the liver, and viruses, toxins, or an autoimmune response can cause it. It is characterized by an inflamed liver. In many cases, the liver can heal itself, but liver failure can occur in severe cases.

Alcoholic liver disease:

Drinking too much alcohol over long periods of time can cause liver damage. It is the most common cause of cirrhosis in the world.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): PSC is a serious inflammatory disease of the bile ducts that results in their destruction. There is currently no cure, and the cause is currently unknown, although the condition is thought to be autoimmune.

Fatty liver disease:

This usually occurs alongside obesity or alcohol abuse. In fatty liver disease, vacuoles of fat build up in the liver cells. If it is not caused by alcohol abuse, the condition is called non-alcoholic fatty liver .

Gilbert’s syndrome:

This is a genetic disorder affecting 3 to 12 percent of the population. Bilirubin is not fully broken down. Mild jaundice can occur, but the disorder is harmless.

Liver cancer:

The most common types of liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. The leading causes are alcohol and hepatitis. It is the sixth most common form of cancer and the second most frequent cause of cancer death.

Liver Health:

Below are some recommendations to help keep your liver working as it should:

Diet:

As the liver is responsible for digesting fats, consuming too many can overwork the organ and disturb it from other tasks. Obesity is also linked to fatty liver disease.

Caution when mixing medications:

Some prescription drugs and natural remedies can interact negatively when mixed. Mixing drugs with alcohol puts significant pressure on the liver. For example, combining alcohol and acetaminophen can lead to acute liver failure. Be sure to follow the instructions on any medications.

Despite its ability to regenerate, the liver depends on being healthy to do so. The liver can mostly be protected through lifestyle choices and dietary measures.

Hepatitis A.

Most people get it by eating or drinking something that’s tainted by fecal matter. You might not have any symptoms. It usually goes away by itself within 6 months without any long-term harm.

Hepatitis B .

You get it from somebody else, such as through unprotected sex or taking drugs with shared needles. If it lasts longer than 6 months, it makes you more likely to get liver cancer or other diseases.

Hepatitis C

comes from infected blood that gets into your blood. You might get it if you take drugs with shared needles or in connection with HIV. If you’re a health-care worker, you might get it from an infected needle that accidentally sticks you. Symptoms may not show up for many years. For reasons that aren’t quite clear, baby boomers are at risk for hepatitis C and should be tested for it.

Fatty liver disease

Fat buildup in the liver can lead to fatty liver disease.

There are two types of fatty liver disease:

alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is caused by heavy alcohol consumption

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is caused by other factors experts are still trying to understand

Left unmanaged, both types of fatty liver disease can cause liver damage, leading to cirrhosis and liver failure. Diet and other lifestyle changes can often improve symptoms and reduce your risk of complications.

Liver failure

Chronic liver failure typically happens when a significant part of your liver is damaged and can’t function properly. Generally, liver failure related to liver disease and cirrhosis happens slowly. You may not have any symptoms at first. But over time, you might start to notice:

jaundice

diarrhea

confusion

fatigue and weakness

nausea

It’s a serious condition that requires ongoing management.

Acute liver failure, on the other hand, happens suddenly, often in response to an overdose or poisoning.

What is cirrhosis?

Cirrhosis is when scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue. This stops the liver from working normally.

Cirrhosis is a long-term (chronic) liver disease. The damage to your liver builds up over time.

When you have cirrhosis, scar tissue slows the flow of blood through the liver. Over time, the liver can’t work the way it should.

In severe cases, the liver gets so badly damaged that it stops working. This is called liver failure.

What are the symptoms of cirrhosis?

Your symptoms may vary, depending on how severe your cirrhosis is. Mild cirrhosis may not cause any symptoms at all.

  • Symptoms may include:
  • Fluid buildup in the belly (ascites)
  • Vomiting blood, often from bleeding in the blood vessels in the food pipe (esophagus)
  • Gallstones
  • Itching
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Kidney failure
  • Muscle loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Easy bruising
  • Spider-like veins in the skin
  • Low energy and weakness (fatigue)
  • Weight loss
  • Confusion as toxins build up in the blood

How is cirrhosis treated?

Cirrhosis is a progressive liver disease that happens over time. The damage to your liver can sometimes reverse or improve if the trigger is gone, such as by treating a viral infection or by not drinking alcohol.

The goal of treatment is to slow down the buildup of scar tissue and prevent or treat other health problems.

In many cases, you may be able to delay or stop any more liver damage. If you have hepatitis, it may be treated to delay worsening of your liver disease.

Your treatment may include:

Eating a healthy diet, low in sodium

Not using alcohol or illegal drugs

Managing any health problems that happen because of cirrhosis

Talk to your healthcare provider before taking prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, or vitamins.

How is cirrhosis diagnosed?

You may also have tests including:

  • Blood tests. (lft)
  • Liver biopsy.
  • CT scan (computed tomography).
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
  • Ultrasound.

Overview

The liver is the second largest (after the skin) organ in the human body and the largest gland (weighing an average of 1500 g). It lies under the diaphragm in the right upper abdomen and midabdomen and extends to the left upper abdomen. The liver has the general shape of a prism or wedge, with its base to the right and its apex to the left (see the image below). It is pinkish brown in color, with a soft consistency, and is highly vascular and easily friable.

The liver is essentially an exocrine gland, secreting bile into the intestine. But, the liver is also — and significantly so — an endocrine gland and a blood filter. The liver has a diversity of functions not typically associated with glands. The liver is a metabolic factory, synthesizing and breaking down a variety of substances. It’s functions include all of the following:

formation and secretion of bile.

storage of glycogen, buffer for blood glucose.

synthesis of urea.

metabolism of cholesterol and fat.

synthesis and endocrine secretion of many plasma proteins, including clotting factors.

detoxification of many drugs and other poisons.

cleansing of bacteria from blood.

processing of several steroid hormones and vitamin D.

volume reservoir for blood.

catabolism of hemoglobin from worn-out red blood cells.

Much of the liver’s organization is conditioned by its central role in removing unwanted materials from blood and otherwise maintaining the blood’s normal composition.